Sensitive Skin – Dermatology

Topical Use of Dexpanthenol in Skin Disorders

Am J Clin Dermatol. 2002;3(6):427-33.
Topical use of dexpanthenol in skin disorders.
Ebner F, Heller A, Rippke F, Tausch I.

Source
Technical University of Munich, Allershausen, Germany. fritz.ebner@t-online.de

Abstract

Pantothenic acid is essential to normal epithelial function. It is a component of coenzyme A, which serves as a cofactor for a variety of enzyme-catalyzed reactions that are important in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins, gluconeogenesis, sterols, steroid hormones, and porphyrins. The topical use of dexpanthenol, the stable alcoholic analog of pantothenic acid, is based on good skin penetration and high local concentrations of dexpanthenol when administered in an adequate vehicle, such as water-in-oil emulsions.

Topical dexpanthenol acts like a moisturizer, improving stratum corneum hydration, reducing transepidermal water loss and maintaining skin softness and elasticity. Activation of fibroblast proliferation, which is of relevance in wound healing, has been observed both in vitro and in vivo with dexpanthenol. Accelerated re-epithelization in wound healing, monitored by means of the transepidermal water loss as an indicator of the intact epidermal barrier function, has also been seen. Dexpanthenol has been shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect on experimental ultraviolet-induced erythema.

Beneficial effects of dexpanthenol have been observed in patients who have undergone skin transplantation or scar treatment, or therapy for burn injuries and different dermatoses. The stimulation of epithelization, granulation and mitigation of itching were the most prominent effects of formulations containing dexpanthenol. In double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials, dexpanthenol was evaluated for its efficacy in improving wound healing. Epidermal wounds treated with dexpanthenol emulsion showed a reduction in erythema, and more elastic and solid tissue regeneration. Monitoring of transepidermal water loss showed a significant acceleration of epidermal regeneration as a result of dexpanthenol therapy, as compared with the vehicle. In an irritation model, pretreatment with dexpanthenol cream resulted in significantly less damage to the stratum corneum barrier, compared with no pretreatment.

Adjuvant skin care with dexpanthenol considerably improved the symptoms of skin irritation, such as dryness of the skin, roughness, scaling, pruritus, erythema, erosion/fissures, over 3 to 4 weeks. Usually, the topical administration of dexpanthenol preparations is well tolerated, with minimal risk of skin irritancy or sensitization.

External link to NIH site and article

Dexpanthenol enhances skin barrier repair and reduces inflammation

J Dermatolog Treat. 2002 Dec;13(4):173-8.
Dexpanthenol enhances skin barrier repair and reduces inflammation after sodium lauryl sulphate-induced irritation.
Proksch E, Nissen HP.
SourceDepartment of Dermatology, University of Kieh Kiel, Germany. eproksch@dermatology.uni-kiel.de

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Dexpanthenol-containing creams have been widely used for treatment of lesions (superficial wounds) of the skin and mucous membranes. Dexpanthenol is converted in tissues to pantothenic acid, a component of coenzyme A. Coenzyme A catalyses early steps in the synthesis of fatty acids and sphingolipids which are of crucial importance for stratum corneum lipid bilayers and cell membrane integrity.

AIM: In the present study, the effects were examined of a dexpanthenol-containing cream on skin barrier repair, stratum corneum hydration, skin roughness, and inflammation after sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-induced irritation.

METHODS: Irritation was induced by application of SLS in patch test chambers. The dexpanthenol-contaming cream or the vehicle were applied twice daily and barrier repair, hydration, roughness, and inflammation of the skin were determined by using biophysical methods.

RESULTS: Significantly accelerated skin barrier repair was found in treatments with the dexpanthenol-containing cream (verum) compared with vehicle-treated (placebo) or untreated skin. Both verum and placebo showed an increase in stratum corneum hydration, but significantly more so with the dexpanthenol-containing cream. Both creams reduced skin roughness, but again the verum was superior. The dexpanthenol-containing cream significantly reduced skin redness as a sign of inflammation in contrast to the vehicle, which produced no effect.

CONCLUSION: Treatment with a dexpanthenol-containing cream showed significantly enhanced skin barrier repair and stratum corneum hydration, while reducing skin roughness and inflammation.

PMID:19753737[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Clinical – Topical Dexpanthenol – B5

Am J Clin Dermatol. 2002;3(6):427-33.
Topical use of dexpanthenol in skin disorders.
Ebner F, Heller A, Rippke F, Tausch I.
SourceTechnical University of Munich, Allershausen, Germany. fritz.ebner@t-online.de

Abstract
Pantothenic acid is essential to normal epithelial function. It is a component of coenzyme A, which serves as a cofactor for a variety of enzyme-catalyzed reactions that are important in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins, gluconeogenesis, sterols, steroid hormones, and porphyrins. The topical use of dexpanthenol, the stable alcoholic analog of pantothenic acid, is based on good skin penetration and high local concentrations of dexpanthenol when administered in an adequate vehicle, such as water-in-oil emulsions. Topical dexpanthenol acts like a moisturizer, improving stratum corneum hydration, reducing transepidermal water loss and maintaining skin softness and elasticity. Activation of fibroblast proliferation, which is of relevance in wound healing, has been observed both in vitro and in vivo with dexpanthenol. Accelerated re-epithelization in wound healing, monitored by means of the transepidermal water loss as an indicator of the intact epidermal barrier function, has also been seen. Dexpanthenol has been shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect on experimental ultraviolet-induced erythema. Beneficial effects of dexpanthenol have been observed in patients who have undergone skin transplantation or scar treatment, or therapy for burn injuries and different dermatoses. The stimulation of epithelization, granulation and mitigation of itching were the most prominent effects of formulations containing dexpanthenol. In double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials, dexpanthenol was evaluated for its efficacy in improving wound healing. Epidermal wounds treated with dexpanthenol emulsion showed a reduction in erythema, and more elastic and solid tissue regeneration. Monitoring of transepidermal water loss showed a significant acceleration of epidermal regeneration as a result of dexpanthenol therapy, as compared with the vehicle. In an irritation model, pretreatment with dexpanthenol cream resulted in significantly less damage to the stratum corneum barrier, compared with no pretreatment. Adjuvant skin care with dexpanthenol considerably improved the symptoms of skin irritation, such as dryness of the skin, roughness, scaling, pruritus, erythema, erosion/fissures, over 3 to 4 weeks. Usually, the topical administration of dexpanthenol preparations is well tolerated, with minimal risk of skin irritancy or sensitization.

PMID:12113650[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Importance of Skin Barrier Health When Using Retinal

The following is a study demonstrating the importance of improving skin barrier strength when using retinal based dermatological treatments:

Cutis. 2006 Oct;78(4):275-81.
Facilitating facial retinization through barrier improvement.
Draelos ZD, Ertel KD, Berge CA.
Source
Department of Dermatology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA. zdraelos@northstate.net
Abstract
The utility of topical tretinoin as a treatment for improving the appearance of photodamaged skin is limited by irritation that occurs during the early phases of facial retinization. The observed side effects are consistent with stratum corneum barrier compromise. This paired double-blinded study was conducted to determine if preconditioning the skin with a barrier-enhancing cosmetic facial moisturizer before beginning tretinoin therapy and continuing moisturizer application during therapy would mitigate these side effects. Women with facial photodamage were recruited and randomly assigned to apply one cosmetic moisturizer to one side of the face and the other cosmetic moisturizer to the other side of the face twice daily for 10 weeks. One moisturizer contained a mixture of vitamins (niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopheryl acetate) to enhance stratum corneum barrier function, and the other moisturizer contained similar moisturizing ingredients but no vitamins. Daily full-face treatment with tretinoin cream 0.025% commenced 2 weeks into the study. Subjects’ facial skin condition was monitored via investigator assessments, instrumental measurements, and subject self-assessments. The results show that improving stratum corneum barrier function before beginning topical tretinoin therapy and continuing use of a barrier-enhancing cosmetic moisturizer during therapy facilitates the early phase of facial retinization and augments the treatment response.
PMID: 17121065 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Benefits of Urea for Sensitive or Dry Skin Conditions

Urea – It’s benefits for Dry Skin and/or Eczema
Although experts in the field of skincare are still battling with what causes dry skin and eczema, it is understood that a lack of urea plays a vital part. Clinical research has proven that very dry skin sufferers lack the natural urea needed to maintain healthy hydrated skin. Skincare treatments that contain urea, significantly help to prevent, care and treat extreme dry skin conditions and eczema by replacing and maintaining urea levels in the skin.

What is Urea?
Along with epidermal lipids and proteins, our skin contains three Natural Moisturising Factors(NMF’s): Urea, Lactic Acid and Amino Acids. These are produced during the keratinisation process which occurs as skin cells become flatter and eventually die. One of the most effective natural moisturisers is Urea, which the skin makes from protein and represents 7% of the natural moisturising factor(NMF) in the outer layer (stratum corneum). It is found in the surface layer of the skin (epidermis), and plays a vital role in maintaining the skin’s moisture balance and the suppleness of the skin. Urea is non-toxic, non-allergenic, colourless and odorless.

Urea is naturally present in healthy skin, but when the skin is dry, and in some skin conditions, such as eczema, psoriasis and dermatitis, the level of urea in the skin is reduced. In the epidermis of healthy skin there is approximately 28 micrograms of Urea per 2.5 square centimetres. In dry skin Urea concentration is diminished by 50%, in skin affected by Psoriasis urea is reduced by 40% and in skin affected by Atopic Eczema urea is reduced by 85%.

As a result of the reduced levels of urea, the water binding capacity of the skin is decreased and moisture is lost. This leads to roughness, tightness, scaly or flaky skin and irritation.

Main Advantages of Urea
Applying urea directly to the skin increases the moisture binding capacity of the skin, thus rehydrating the skin, softening it and reducing cracking and roughness. It also helps reduce the cycle of itching and irritation, producing a localised anesthetic affect, as well as the likelihood of flare-ups.

Urea penetrates and re-hydrates the Corneum. Also, the addition of urea to dermatological preparations increased the penetration of other substances, such as cortcosteroids, which is attributed to urea’s ability to increase skin hydration after application.

The proteolytic characteristics of urea are well recognised, where, depending on the concentration, urea modifies the structure of amino-chains as well as of polypeptides. This is significant for skin moisturising since a correlation exists between water content and amino acid content in skin- the dryer the skin, the lower the share of dissolved amino acids.

There are two types of spots that are very similar in appearance to age spots. Most commonly known as melasma or chloasma spots, these discolorations result from hormonal changes rather than sun damage. This type of hyperpigmentation usually occurs in pregnant women or women who take birth control pills.

How Does Urea Penetrate the Skin?
Penetration of Urea is dependent on the vehicle in which it is contained. It has been shown that the penetration is much deeper in the layers of the stratum corneum (which contains around 30 layers of flattened cells) when urea is applied in a water and oil emulsion, such as our dry skin treatments. When urea is applied to the skin in a water/oil emulsion the stratum corneum is able to retain water for longer, and water loss through evaporation is also slowed down.

Where Does Urea Come From?
The urea found in most cosmetics are synthetically produced and therefore does not come from any animals or humans.

Sensitive Skin and Azeloyl Glycine (Potassium Azeloyl Diglycinate – Azeloglicina)

Azeloyl Glycine – The Benefits of the New Azelaic Acid Derivative

Azelaic acid is a traditional whitening and anti-acne active ingredient. But its usage in cosmetics is limited because of its insolubility, high melt point and large dosage requirement.

Azeloyl Glycine (also known as – potassium azeloyl diglycinate or azeloglicina) is a new type azelaic acid derivative that resolves many of the “stumbling blocks” azelaic acid carries with it. Azeloyl Glycine offers higher solubility in water, requires less dosage, has better effects of whitening, and better effects controlling the secretion of sebum.

Many studies indicate that Azeloyl Glycine is a safe, highly effective, and multifunctional cosmetic ingredient.

Sensitive skin types have found azeloyl glycine easier to tolerate compared to azelaic acid.

Our treatment containing Azeloyl Glycine – Rosa-Azeloyl Cream